Laser welding characteristics of Ti-Pb dissimilar couples and element diffusion in the molten pool
Authors: Zhao, SS; Zhang, ZY; Wang, YB; Li, D; Lin, XC
Volume: 181 Pages: 163-174 Published: 2019 Language: English Document type: Article
Laser welding lead metal to titanium or titanium alloy, which is a typical dissimilar welding process, have a great challenge. Couples of Ti-Pb, Ti6Al4V-Pb were welded by a 3kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. The influences of process parameters such as laser power and laser beam offset on welding depth were investigated. Microstructure, element distribution and micro hardness of the welds were tested. The element diffusion characteristics during laser welding of Ti-Pb couple and Ti6Al4V-Pb couple were studied based on the experiments data. Experimental results show laser beam offset is a primary factor for welding titanium alloy and lead metal, and laser power plays a critical role for welding pure titanium and lead metal. A chemical potential calculation model of Ti-Pb-Al ternary alloy was established. The calculation results show that chemical potential of Ti element increases with enhancing Pb content in Ti-Pb-Al ternary system, however, the chemical potential of Ti element decreases with increasing Pb content in Ti-Pb binary system. According to the calculation results, for Ti-Pb-Al ternary system, because of the Al element in the molten pool, the Ti element tends to diffuse into the Al element, and the diffusion driving force of Ti element to the Pb element is weak. Compared with the Ti-Pb binary system and the Ti-Pb-Al ternary system, it is more likely to form a mixed fusion weld for the binary system, and the mass transfer interface phenomenon is more serious for the ternary system, which is consistent with EDS line scan and microhardness testing results.