A Face Alignment Accelerator Based on Optimized Coarse-to-Fine Shape Searching
Authors: Liu, LB; Wang, Q; Zhu, WP; Mo, HY; Wang, TC; Yin, SY; Shi, YY; Wei, SJ
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY
Volume: 29 Issue: 8 Pages: 2467-2481 Published: AUG 2019 Language: English Document type: Article
The coarse-to-fine shape searching (CFSS) framework is a recently developed algorithm that achieves relatively high accuracy in face alignment by alleviating the poor initialization problem facing traditional cascaded regression approaches. However, its high computational complexity and memory access demands make it difficult for CFSS to satisfy the requirements of real-time processing. To address this issue, a fast shape searching face alignment (F-SSFA) accelerator is presented based on the optimization of the CFSS algorithm and an efficient hardware implementation. First, the learning-based low-dimensional speeded-up robust features method, based on the correlations between the SURF features and the regression targets, is introduced to distill the feature set down to the only most distinct features to reduce the computing load. Second, the partial keypoints Euclidean distance and shape affine transformation are introduced to replace feature extraction and support vector machine classification, thereby accelerating the shape searching process. Compared with CFSS, F-SSFA achieves a 5.8x speedup while achieving similar accuracy. Moreover, a VLSI architecture is proposed to realize the fixed-point F-SSFA algorithm. Multiple descriptors located in adjacent regions are simultaneously generated in a single access to the corresponding image data. Therefore, repeated memory access operations are avoided. The optimal parameter configuration for hardware implementation is also exploited based on a tradeoff between accuracy and hardware performance. Simulated with TSMC 65-nm 1P8M technology within a 3.6 mm(2) area, a post-layout simulation shows that 700 fps can be achieved while consuming 300 mW at 200 MHz.